Hietalahti, M.; Massacci, F.; and Niemelä, I. DES: a challenge problem for nonmonotonic reasoning systems. In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning. Accepted for publication. (CoRR: arXiv:cs.AI/0003039)

The paper contains two encodings of the USA DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD (DES) using logic programs and the stable model semantics.

- A direct one for which the logic program rules capturing DES are given as a gzipped tar file. Here the rules are basically in Prolog style syntax and contain variables but no function symbols.
- An optimized one which is upgraded from a optized encoder of Massacci and Marraro translating DES key search programs to SAT problems. This produces ground programs.

- Propositional Crypto Challenges by Fabio Massacci: cryptographic problems (including DES) encoded into propositional logic.
- Has DES been broken?
- Cracking DES, Secrets of Encryption Research, Wiretap Politics & Chip Design
- Linear cryptanalysis method for DES cipher:
M. Matsui, ``Linear cryptanalysis method for DES cipher,'' Advances in Cryptology, Proceedings Eurocrypt'93, LNCS 765, T. Helleseth, Ed., Springer-Verlag, 1994, pp. 386-397.

M. Matsui. The first experimental cryptanalysis of the data encryption standard. In Advances in Cryptology Crypto'94, pages 1-11, Springer-Verlag, 1994.